Tessa Hart, PhD

Tessa Hart

Institute Scientist, Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute
Director, Traumatic Brain Injury Clinical Research Laboratory
Research Professor, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Jefferson Medical College
Adjunct Professional Staff, Albert Einstein Healthcare Network

Research interests

I received a PhD in Clinical Neuropsychology from the University of Houston and spent many years treating and developing programs for people with acquired brain injury and their families in inpatient, outpatient, and residential settings before joining the MRRI faculty as a full-time researcher in 1999.

My research interests are broad and most have a clinical or applied focus. Main interests include the long-term sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and how to treat them, particularly in cognitive areas such as attention, memory, self-awareness, and executive function, as well  as emotional disturbances such as irritability and depression; treatment models for TBI based on learning and self-regulation; vocational rehabilitation; and assistive technology for cognition.  I am also interested in models for defining the active ingredients of rehabilitation, and in methodological challenges of research on complex interventions.

Current projects

>The Moss Traumatic Brain Injury Model System, including diverse local and multi-center projects on TBI treatment and outcomes from acute rehabilitation to vocational interventions
>The Anger Self-Management Training project, a 2-center clinical trial testing a novel psycho-educational treatment for anger and irritability following TBI
>The SMS project, which is testing a brief intervention for depression/ anxiety in TBI, using 1 session of modified Behavioral Activation followed by text messages reminding participants of their activity intentions

Publications

Journal Articles

Cantor J, Ashman T, Bushnik T, Cai X, Farrell-Carnahan L, Gumber S, Hart T, Rosenthal J, Dijkers M. Systematic review of interventions for fatigue after traumatic brain injury: A NIDRR Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems study. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, in press.

Kim J, Parker D, Whyte J, Hart T, Pluta J, Ingalhalikar M, Coslett HB, Verma R. Disrupted structural connectome is associated with neuropsychological and real-world behavioral impairment in diffuse traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, in press.

Hart T, Kozlowski A, Whyte J, Poulsen I, Kristensen K, Nordenbo A, Heinemann AW. Functional recovery after severe traumatic brain injury: An Individual Growth Curve approach. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, in press. PMID:25010537

Krellman JW, Kolakowsky-Hayner SA, Spielman L, Hammond FM, Bogner J, Hart T, Cantor JB, Tsaousides T. Predictors of follow-up completeness in longitudinal research on traumatic brain injury: Findings from the NIDRR TBI Model Systems Program. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95:633-641, 2014. PMID:24211496

Hart T, Benn EKT, Bagiella E, Arenth P, Dikmen S, Hesdorffer DC, Novack TA, Ricker JH, Zafonte R. Early trajectory of psychiatric symptoms after traumatic brain injury: Relationship to patient and injury characteristics. Journal of Neurotrauma, 31(7): 610-617, 2014. PMID:24237113

Hart T, Ferraro M, Myers R, Ellis CA. Opening the Black Box: Lessons learned from an interdisciplinary inquiry into the learning-based contents of brain injury rehabilitation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95 (1 Suppl 1):S66-73, 2014. PMID:24370327

Whyte J, Dijkers M, Hart T, Zanca J, Packel A, Ferraro M, Tsaousides T. Development of a theory-driven rehabilitation treatment taxonomy: Conceptual issues. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95 (1 Suppl 1):S24-32, 2014. PMID:24370322

Hart T, Tsaousides T, Zanca J, Whyte J, Packel A, Ferraro M, Dijkers M. Toward a theory-driven classification of rehabilitation treatments. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95 (1 Suppl 1):S33-44, 2014. PMID:24370323

Dijkers M, Hart T, Whyte J, Zanca J, Packel A, Tsaousides T. Rehabilitation treatment taxonomy: Implications and continuations. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95 (1 Suppl 1):S45-54, 2014. PMID:24370324

Dijkers M, Hart T, Tsauosides T, Whyte J, Zanca J. An interventions taxonomy for medical rehabilitation: Past, present and prospects. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95 (1 Suppl 1):S6-16, 2014. PMID:24370326

Corrigan JD, Bogner J, Mellick D, Bushnik T, Dams-O’Connor K, Hammond FM, Hart T, Kolakowsky-Hayner S. Prior history of TBI among persons in the TBI Model Systems National Database. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 94:1940-50, 2013. PMID:23770276

Hart T, Brockway JA, Whyte J, Bell KR, Neuberger S, Chervonena I. Analyzing the ingredients of a telephone counseling intervention for traumatic brain injury. Disability and Rehabilitation, in press. 35:1668-1675, 2013. PMID: 23336123

Lequerica AH, Chiaravalloti ND, Sander AM, Pappadis MR, Arango-Lasprilla JC, Hart T, Baños JH, Marquez De La Plata CD, Hammond FM, Sherman TE. The Community Integration Questionnaire: Factor structure across racial/ethnic groups in persons with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, in press. 28:E14-22, 2013. PMID: 23249771

Zafonte RD, Bagiella E, Ansel BM, Novack TA, Friedewald WT, Hesdorffer DC, Timmons SD, Jallo J, Eisenberg H, Hart T, Ricker JH, Diaz-Arrastia R, Merchant RE, Temkin NR, Melton S, Dikmen SS. Effect of citicoline on functional and cognitive status among patients with traumatic brain injury: Citicoline Brain Injury Treatment Trial (COBRIT). Journal of the American Medical Association, 308:1993-200, 2012. PMID: 23168823

Hart T, Hoffman JM, Pretz C, Kennedy R, Clark AN, Brenner LA. A longitudinal study of major and minor depression following traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 93:1343-9, 2012. PMID: 22840833

Hart T, Bagiella E. Design and implementation of clinical trials in rehabilitation research. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 93 (8 Suppl. 2):S117-26, 2012. PMID: 22840878

Hart T, Vaccaro M, Hays C, Maiuro R. Anger self-management training for people with traumatic brain injury: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 27:113-122, 2012. PMID: 21407088

Stiers W, Carlozzi N, Cernich A, Velozo C, Pape T, Hart T, Gulliver S, Rogers M, Villarreal E, Gordon S, Gordon W, Whiteneck W. Measurement of social participation outcomes in the rehabilitation of veterans with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 49:139-154, 2012. PMID: 22492344

Bell KR, Brockway JA, Hart T, Whyte J, Sherer M, Fraser RT, Temkin NR, Dikmen SS. Scheduled telephone intervention for traumatic brain injury: A multi-center randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92:1552-1560, 2011. PMID: 21963122

Hart T, Brenner L, Clark AN, Bogner JA, Novack TA, Chervoneva I, Nakase-Richardson R, Arango-Lasprilla JC. Major and minor depression following traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92:1211-1219, 2011. PMID: 21807140

Whiteneck GG, Dijkers MP, Heinemann AW, Bogner JA, Bushnik T, Cicerone KD, Corrigan JD, Hart T, Malec JF, Millis SR. Development of the Participation Assessment with Recombined Tools-Objective for use after traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92:542-551, 2011. PMID: 21367393

Nakase-Richardson R, Sherer M. Seel R, Hart T, Hanks R, Arango-Lasprilla J, Yablon SA, Sander A, Barnett SD, Walker W, Hammond F. Utility of post-traumatic amnesia in predicting 1-year productivity following traumatic brain injury: Comparison of the Russell and Mississippi PTA classification intervals. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 82:494-499, 2011. PMID: 21242285

Wilde EA, Whiteneck GG, Bogner J, Bushnik T, Cifu DX, Dikmen S, French L, Giacino JT, Hart T, Malec JF, Millis SR, Novack TA, Sherer M, Tulsky DS, Vanderploeg RD, von Steinbuechel N. Recommendations for the use of common outcome measures in traumatic brain injury research. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91:1650-1660 (with 17 supplemental e-pages available), 2010. PMID 21044708

Bagiella E, Novack T, Ansel B, Diaz-Arrastia R, Dikmen S, Hart T, Temkin N. Measuring outcome in traumatic brain injury treatment trials: Recommendations from the TBI Clinical Trials Network. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 25:375-382, 2010. PMID 20216459

Hart T, Sherer M, Temkin N, Whyte J, Dikmen S, Heinemann AW, Bell K. Participant-proxy agreement on objective and subjective aspects of societal participation following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 25:339-348, 2010. PMID 20042981

Hart T, Dijkers M, Whyte J, Braden C, Trott C, Fraser R. Vocational interventions and supports following job placement for persons with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 32:135-150, 2010.

Brown A, Malec J, Mandrekar J, Diehl N, Dikmen S, Sherer M, Hart T, Novack T. Predictive utility of weekly post-traumatic amnesia assessments after brain injury: A multicenter analysis. Brain Injury, 24:472-478, 2010. PMID: 20184404

Penna S, Novack T, Carlson N, Grote M, Corrigan J, Hart T. Residence following traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal study. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 25:52-60, 2010. PMID: 20051896

Fann J, Hart T, Schomer K. Treatment for depression following traumatic brain injury: A systematic review of the evidence. Journal of Neurotrauma, 26:2383-2402, 2009. PMID 19698070

Hart T. Treatment definition in complex rehabilitation interventions. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 19:824-840, 2009. PMID 19544183

Hart T, Whyte J, Ellis C, Chervoneva I. Construct validity of an attention rating scale for traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology, 23:729-735, 2009. PMID 19899831

Kreutzer JS, Rapport LJ, Marwitz JH, Harrison-Felix C, Hart T, Glenn M, Hammond F. Caregivers’ well-being after traumatic brain injury: A multi-center prospective investigation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 90:939-946, 2009.

Arango-Lasprilla JC, Ketchum JM, Williams K, Hart T, Corrigan J, Foster L, Mascialino G. Race/ ethnicity differences in satisfaction with life among persons with traumatic brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation, 24:5-14, 2009. PMID 19208953

Hart T, Seignourel PJ, Sherer M. A longitudinal study of awareness of deficit after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 19:161-176, 2009. PMID 18609008

Marquez de la Plata C, Hart T, Hammond FM, Frol A, Hudak A, Harper C, O’Neil-Pirozzi T, Whyte J, Carlile M, Diaz-Arrastia R. Impact of age on long-term recovery from traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89:896-903, 2008. PMID 18452739

Whyte J, Hart T, Ellis C, Chervoneva I. The Moss Attention Rating Scale for traumatic brain injury: Further explorations of reliability and sensitivity to change. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89:966-73, 2008. PMID 18452747

Kim J, Whyte J, Hart T, Vaccaro M, Polansky M, Coslett HB. Executive function as a predictor of inattentive behavior after traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11:434-445, 2005. PMID 16209424

Whyte J, Hart T, Ellis C, Chervoneva I. The Moss Attention Rating Scale for traumatic brain injury: Further explorations of reliability and sensitivity to change. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89:966-73, 2008. PMID 18452747

Bell KR, Hammond F, Hart T, Bickett AK, Temkin N, Dikmen S. Participant recruitment and retention in rehabilitation research. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87:330-338, 2008. PMID 18356624

Whyte J, Vaccaro M, Grieb-Neff P, Hart T, Polansky M, Coslett HB. The effects of bromocriptine on attention deficits after traumatic brain injury: A placebo controlled pilot study. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87:85-99, 2008.

Hart T, Fann J, Novack T. The dilemma of the control condition in experience-based cognitive and behavioral treatment research. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 18:1-21, 2008. PMID 16635627

Chu B, Millis S, Arango-Lasprilla J, Hanks R, Novack T, Hart T. Measuring recovery in new learning and memory following traumatic brain injury: A mixed effects modeling approach. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 29:617-625, 2007. PMID 17691034

Hart T, Hanks R, Bogner JA, Millis S, Esselman P. Blame attribution in intentional and unintentional traumatic brain injury: Longitudinal changes and impact on subjective well-being. Rehabilitation Psychology, 52:152-161, 2007.

Vaccaro M, Hart T, Whyte J, Buchhofer R. Internet use and interest among individuals with traumatic brain injury: A consumer survey. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 2:85-95, 2007. PMID 19263543

Hart T, O’Neil-Pirozzi TM, Williams KD, Rapport LJ, Hammond F, Kreutzer J. Racial differences in caregiving patterns, caregiver emotional function and sources of emotional support following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 22:121-131, 2007. PMID 17414314

Walker WC, Marwitz JH, Kreutzer JS, Hart T, Novack T. Occupational categories and return to work after traumatic brain injury:A multicenter study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87:1576-1582, 2006. PMID 17141636

Hart T, Dijkers M, Fraser R, Cicerone K, Bogner J, Whyte J, Waldron B, Malec J. Vocational services for traumatic brain injury: Treatment definition and diversity within Model Systems of care. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 21:467-482, 2006. PMID 17122678

Sherer M, Stouter J, Hart T, Nakase-Richardson R, Olivier J, Manning E, Yablon SA. Computed Tomography findings and early cognitive outcome after traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 20:997-1005, 2006. PMID 17046799

Hart T, Whyte J, Millis S, Bode R, Malec J, Nakase-Richardson R, Hammond F. Dimensions of disordered attention in traumatic brain injury: Further validation of the Moss Attention Rating Scale. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87:647-655, 2006. PMID 16635627

Hart T, Evans J. Self-regulation and goal theories in brain injury rehabilitation. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 21:142-155, 2006. PMID 16569988

Hart T, Whyte J, Kim J, Vaccaro M. Executive function and self-awareness of “real-world” behavior and attention deficits following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20:333-347, 2005. PMID 16030440

Sherer M, Hart T, Whyte J, Nick TG, Yablon SA. Neuro-anatomic basis of impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury: Findings from early computed tomography. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20:287-300, 2005.

Kim J, Whyte J, Hart T, Vaccaro M, Polansky M, Coslett HB. Executive function as a predictor of inattentive behavior after traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11:434-445, 2005. PMID 16209424

Hart T, Whyte J, Polansky M, Kersey-Matusiak G, Fidler-Sheppard R. Community outcomes following traumatic brain injury: Impact of race and pre-injury status. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20:158-172, 2005. PMID 15803039

Lehtonen S, Stringer AY, Millis S, Boake C, Englander J, Hart T, High W, Macciocchi S, Meythaler J, Novack T, Whyte J: Neuropsychological outcome and community re-integration following traumatic brain injury: The impact of frontal and non-frontal lesions. Brain Injury, 19:239-256, 2005. PMID 15832870

Hart T, Buchhofer R, Vaccaro M: Portable electronic devices as memory and organizational aids after traumatic brain injury: A consumer survey study. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 19:351-365, 2004. PMID 15597027

Hart T, Sherer M, Whyte J, Polansky M, Novack T. Awareness of behavioral, cognitive and physical deficits in acute traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85:1450-1456, 2004. PMID 15375815

Hammond FM, Hart T, Bushnik T, Corrigan JD, Sasser H. Change and predictors of change in communication, cognition, and social function between one and five years after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 19:314-328, 2004.

Whyte J, Hart T, Vaccaro M, Grieb-Neff P, Risser A, Polansky M, Coslett HB: The effects of methylphenidate on attention deficits after traumatic brain injury: A multi-dimensional randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 83:401-420, 2004. PMID 15166683

Sherer M, Nick T, Sander A, Hart T, Hanks R, Rosenthal M, High W,Yablon S. Race and productivity outcome after traumatic brain injury: Influence of confounding factors. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 18:408-424, 2003. PMID 12973271

Whyte J, Hart T: It’s more than a black box; it’s a Russian doll: Defining rehabilitation treatments. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82:639-652, 2003. PMID 12872021

Hart T, Bogner J, Whyte J, Polansky M: Attribution of blame in accidental and violence-related traumatic brain injury. Rehabilitation Psychology, 48: 86-92, 2003

Hart T, O’Neil-Pirozzi T, Morita C: Clinician expectations for portable electronic devices as cognitive-behavioural orthoses in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation. Brain Injury, 17:401-411, 2003. PMID 12745712

Hart T, Millis S, Novack T, Englander J, Fidler-Sheppard R, Bell K. The relationship between neuropsychologic function and level of caregiver supervision at 1 year post traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84:221-230, 2003. PMID 12601653

Sherer M, Hart T, Nick TG, Whyte J, Thompson RK, Yablon SA: Early impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84:168-176, 2003.

Whyte J, Hart T, Bode R, Malec J: The Moss Attention Rating Scale (MARS) for traumatic brain injury: Initial psychometric assessment. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84: 268-276, 2003. PMID 12601660

Hart T, Whyte J, Polansky M, Millis S, Hammond FM, Sherer M, Bushnik T, Hanks R, Kreutzer J: Concordance of patient and family report of neurobehavioral symptoms at 1 year post traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84:204-213, 2003. PMID 12601651

Sherer M, Hart T, Nick T: Measurement of impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury: A comparison of the Patient Competency Rating Scale and the Awareness Questionnaire. Brain Injury 17:25-37, 2003. PMID 12519645

Hart T, Hawkey K, Whyte J: Use of a portable voice organizer to remember therapy goals in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: A within-subjects trial. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 17:556-570, 2002. PMID 12802246

Vaccaro M, Hart T, Whyte J: Internet resources for traumatic brain injury: A selective review of websites for consumers. NeuroRehabilitation 17:169-174, 2002. PMID 12082244

Whyte J, Vaccaro M, Grieb-Neff P, Hart T: Psychostimulant use in the rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 17:284-299, 2002. PMID 12105998

Giovannetti T, Libon D, Hart T: Awareness of naturalistic action errors in dementia. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 8:633-644, 2002. PMID 12164673

Schwartz MF, Buxbaum LJ, Montgomery MW, Fitzpatrick-DeSalme E, Hart T, Ferraro M, Lee SS, Coslett HB: Naturalistic action production in right hemisphere stroke. Neuropsychologia 37:51-66, 1999.

Hart T, Giovannetti T, Montgomery M, Schwartz M: Awareness of errors in naturalistic action following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 13:16-27, 1998.

Schwartz M F, Montgomery MW, Buxbaum LJ, Lee SS, Carew TG, Coslett HB, Ferraro M, Fitzpatrick-DeSalme E, Hart T, Mayer N: Naturalistic action impairment in closed head injury. Neuropsychology 12:13-28, 1998.

Whyte J, Hart T, Schuster K, Fleming M, Polansky M, Coslett HB: The effects of methylphenidate on attentional function after traumatic brain injury: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 76: 440-450, 1997.

Hart T, Nagele D: The assessment of competency in traumatic brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation 7:27-38, 1996

Jacobs HE, Hart T, Mory KD, Griffin C, Martin BA, Probst J: Single subject evaluation designs in rehabilitation: Case studies on inpatient units. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 11:86-94, 1996

Hart T, Jacobs HE: Rehabilitation and management of behavioral disturbances following frontal lobe injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 8:1-12, 1993

Hayden ME, Hart T: Rehabilitation of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction in head injury. Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine 16: 194-229, 1986. PMID:3521227

Johnson R, Pfefferbaum A, Hart T, Kopell B: P300 latency in chronic alcoholics and depressed patients. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences 425:585-591, 1984.

Stein D, Finger S, Hart T: Brain damage and recovery: Problems and perspectives. Behavioral and Neural Biology 37:185-222, 1983.

Book Chapters

Whyte J, Ponsford J, Watanabe T, Hart T: Traumatic Brain Injury. In: Frontera WR, Ed., Delisa's Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Principles and Practice, 5th Edition. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010, pp. 575 - 623.

Hart T: Cognitive rehabilitation. In: Frank RG, Rosenthal M, Caplan B, Eds., Handbook of Rehabilitation Psychology, 2nd Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2010, 285-300.

Scherer M, Hart T, Kirsch N, Schulteis M: Assistive technologies for cognitive disabilities. In: Grabois M, Ed. Critical Reviews in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 17(3). Redding, CT: Begell House, Inc., 2005, pp. 195-215.

Whyte J, Hart T, Laborde A, Rosenthal M: Rehabilitation issues in traumatic brain injury. In: Delisa J et al., Eds. Rehabilitation Medicine: Principles and Practice, 4th Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 2004, pp. 1677-1713

Hart T, Schwartz MF, Mayer N: Executive function: Some current theories and their applications.In: Varney NR, Roberts RJ, Eds. Evaluation and Treatment of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999, pp. 133-148

Whyte J, Hart T, Laborde A, Rosenthal M: Rehabilitation of the patient with traumatic brain injury. In: Delisa J et al., Eds. Rehabilitation Medicine: Principles and Practice, 3rd Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1998, pp. 1191-1239

Hart T, Hayden ME: The ecological validity of neuropsychological assessment and remediation. In: Uzzell BP, Gross Y, Eds. Clinical Neuropsychology of Intervention. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 1986, pp. 21 5

Alternative Media

Hart T, Whyte J: The Moss Attention Rating Scale for Traumatic Brain Injury. Assessment Tools section paper for Neuro-Cognitive Rehabilitation Research Network, www.ncrrn.org, posted September, 2008.

Hart T: The Moss Attention Rating Scale: Introduction, syllabus, FAQ, rating forms, and psychometric properties. Web pages written for the Center for Outcome Measurement in Brain Injury (COMBI), www.tbims.org/combi, 2008.

Hart T: Treatment definition in experience-based rehabilitation research. Methodology paper for Neuro-Cognitive Rehabilitation Research Network, www.ncrrn.org, posted June, 2007.

Whyte J, Hart T: Developing observational rating scales. Methodology paper for Neuro-Cognitive Rehabilitation Research Network, www.ncrrn.org, posted July, 2008.